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Miltenyi Biotec Annexin V conjugates

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This product is suitable for the identification and enumeration of dead cells, such as apoptotic or necrotic cells, by flow cytometry.

The Annexin V Fluorochromes selectively label apoptotic, necrotic, and dead cells through the specific binding of Annexin V to phosphotidylserine (PS). In most normal, viable eukaryotic cells, the negatively charged phospholipid PS is located in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer.1 PS redistribution from the inner to the outer leaflet is an early and widespread event during apoptosis.1,2

However, in necrosis, PS becomes accessible due to the disruption of membrane integrity.2 Apart from necrosis and apoptosis, PS also becomes accessible in activated platelets3, in certain cell anomalies like sickle cell anemia4, in erythrocyte senescence5, upon degranulation of mast cells6, and in certain stages of B cell differentiation7. PS exposure by apoptotic cells serves as a trigger for the recognition and removal by macrophages.8,9
 
Annexin V is a 35 kDa phospholipid-binding protein and has a high affinity for PS in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium (Ca2+).10
 

Selected references

  1. Koopman et al. (1994) Blood 84: 1415–1420.
  2. Martin et al. (1995) J. Exp. Med. 182: 1545–1556.
  3. Thiagarajan et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265: 17420–17423.
  4. Kuypers et al. (1996) Blood 87: 1179–1187.
  5. Schroit et al. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1071: 313–329.
  6. Demo et al. (1999) Cytometry 36: 340–348.
  7. Dillon et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 166: 58–71.
  8. Fadok et al. (1992) J. Immunol. 148: 2207–2216.
  9. Fadok et al. (2000) Nature 405: 85–90.
  10. Moss et al. (1991) In: Novel Calcium Binding Proteins, Springer Verlag: 535–566.